Bibliography Excerpt 1

Studies of animals exposed to dioxin suggest that some fish, birds, and other animals are sensitive to even small amounts. As a result, it can cause widespread damage to wildlife, including birth defects and death. However, the concentration at which it poses a hazard to human health is still controversial. Studies suggest that workers exposed to high concentrations of dioxin for longer than a year have an increased risk of dying of cancer.18 The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has classified dioxin as a known human carcinogen, but the decision is controversial. For most of the exposed people, such as those eating a diet high in animal fat, the EPA puts the risk of developing cancer between 1 in 1,000 and 1 in 100. This estimate represents the highest possible risk for individuals who have had the greatest exposure. For most people, the risk will likely be much lower.


The EPA has set an acceptable intake of dioxin at 0.006 pg. per kilogram of body weight per day. This level is deemed too low by some scientists, who argue that the acceptable intake ought to be 100 to 1,000 times higher, or approximately 1 to 10 pg. per day.18 The EPA believes that setting the level this much higher could result in health effects.


The dioxin problem became well known in 1983 when Times Beach, Missouri, a river town just west of Saint Louis with a population of 2,400, was evacuated and purchased for $36 million by the government. The evacuation and purchase occurred after the discovery that oil sprayed on the town’s roads to control dust contained dioxin, and that the entire area had been contaminated.