Development Workshops

In sum, the studies of major disorders in wildlife have centered on abnormalities, including thinning of birds’ eggshells, decline in populations of various animals and birds, reduced viability of offspring, and changes in sexual behavior. With respect to human diseases, much research has been done on linkages between HAAs and breast cancer by exploring relationships between environmental estrogens and cancer. Other studies are ongoing to understand relationships between PCBs and neurological behavior that results in poor performance on standard intelligence tests. Finally, there is concern that exposure of people to phthalates that are found in plastics containing chlorine is also causing problems. Consumption of phthalates in the United States is considerable, with the highest exposure in women of childbearing age.


The products being tested as the source of contamination include perfumes and other cosmetics, such as nail polish and hairspray. In sum, there is good scientific evidence that some chemical agents, in sufficient concentrations, will affect human reproduction through endocrine and hormonal disruption. The human endocrine system is of primary importance because it is one of the two main systems (the other is the nervous system) that regulate and control growth, development, and reproduction.


The human endocrine system consists of a group of hormone-secreting glands, including the thyroid, pancreas, pituitary, ovaries (in women), and testes (in men). The bloodstream transports the hormones to virtually all parts of the body, where they act as chemical messengers to control growth and development of the body. The National Academy of Sciences completed a review of the available scientific evidence concerning HAAs and recommends continued monitoring of wildlife and human populations for abnormal development and reproduction.